Mom’s Favorite Personalized Necklaces

Aside from getting your own charm necklace you can get your mom name charm necklace. It can also be a perfect gift to give to your mom, since its design can fit any type of personality. You will only have to choose the design that you think would fit your mom best. Added to this, the charm necklace can also suit your friends and other people dear to you. This can be a great way to show that thoughtfulness because you can select the design that you want and pick a charm that you think matches the personality of the other person through this elegant and useful gift.

One is customized necklace such as Sweet Heart & Charm Necklace, its with a heart shaped pendant which is about 3/4″ with love design in it. This kind of necklace is very popular. Its charm is a.999 fine silver, the heart charm can say “Love” and the bigger round pendant can be engraved the name of the child, or the name of the parent.

Name Necklace You have to understand that there were two sales made that weekend. The rice lady sold us on buying a grain of rice and I sold my girlfriend on marrying me.

What is in the top of every brides personal priority list? Many would probably say that it is her wedding dress. And why not? This is the dress that tops all dresses, for it is one she will wear on the day that will mark one of the biggest changes in her life, albeit a change she willingly embraces. But the dress might look bare without the accessories to go with it. This is where the wedding jewelry comes in, and when we get down to particulars, like the neck, the bridal necklace is the one that takes care of that bareness.

Large necklaces of circle and baroques gems with 14 k gold ball clasps come in array of colors such as: peacock, platinum (silvery white), golden Champaign, even the rare pistachio and blue. There are many other subtle colors or variations of these. You can also choose multicolored strands. The large variety of shapes of our baroque pearls are sorted and matched to make unusual stands.

This mother’s necklace charms (Ieltsplanet.info) includes a pendant where the baby’s name and or birth date is engraved. Some pendants even have personalized image engravings such as baby foot and hand prints. Some may even have baby’s photo laminated or printed on the pendant.

A personalized necklace can display the unique characteristics and personality of the receiver. There are many styles to choose from that can catch the attention of lookers to get an idea of who the wearer is. It can be simple and elegant in gold. Or it could be studded with beads and stones for a dazzling effect.

Diamond heart pendants are also a very popular style amongst women. It has always been said that a diamond is a girl’s best friend. If this really is true no women should live without a diamond heart necklace, or two. These types of necklaces come in all different shapes and sizes but with a little know how; you can find the perfect one.

READ MORE

Necklace And Bracelet For Mom

Everyone looks forward to Friday because it begins the weekend. Thursdays are great too because people are looking forward to the next day. This is a day when you can be bold, playful or even sophisticated with your jewelry. Use necklaces, bracelets, rings, and earrings to enhance the colors and style of your outfit. You can even throw in a matching purse along with some matching shoes to complete your outfit!

This type of jewelry is impossible to ignore because it has many of the characteristics that makes it unforgettable. Since it is bendy, it can offer the person wearing it thousands of possibilities and styles. This remains one of the decorations that can finally keep a woman satisfied because she will never get bored of it. Not to mention that a woman can save up big bucks because she will not have to shop for new jewelry daily.

Aside from getting your own charm necklace you can get your mom name charm necklace. It can also be a perfect gift to give to your mom, since its design can fit any type of personality. You will only have to choose the design that you think would fit your mom best. Added to this, the charm necklace can also suit your friends and other people dear to you. This can be a great way to show that thoughtfulness because you can select the design that you want and pick a charm that you think matches the personality of the other person through this elegant and useful gift.

Then, because it was rice, I went to a Chinese restaurant and got a take-out container and had them fill it with fortune cookies. I draped the necklace over the cookies and sealed it up.

It may sound something like: “Tiffany? That’s one… “It is so nice to meet you!” “How old are you, Tiffany?” That’s two. A minute later to your boss: “Does Tiffany like to draw?” That’s three! “Yes? Perfect!” Four minutes later: “Here you go, Tiffany, we just got those markers – your father tells me you like to draw. I could use something pretty in my office!” That’s four times in less than five minutes. By now “Tiffany” is almost like one of those songs in your head you would like to get rid of, but find it really hard to.

Twenty-four karat gold is the purest form of gold, but this much purity can hardly be used in ornaments because at this stage gold is very soft. The purity of gold used in a Name Necklace is generally marked near the clutch of the Name Necklace. However, evaluation of gold ornaments depends not only on the purity of the gold, but also on the sophistication of the design and the handiwork.

Silver is valued a precious metal used for jewelry, ornaments, and a lot of types of silverware. The third is Diamonds and do not only look good on one’s ring finger. Diamonds look great anywhere. It has a luster and an elegance which is undeniable. Wear it on your ring finger, and it instantly denotes the promise of eternity. Wear it on your ears and your eyes will sparkle beside the mineral. Wear it as a pendant Snake Necklace [Http://Bazamayak.Ru] and the promise of eternity and strenth is adorned right in the middle of your chest.

Actually, if you use the internet in finding for different personalized jewelry, you will indeed find a lot of styles and designs. Of course, in picking for a handcrafted personalized necklace, you have to consider the personality of the person that you will be gifting with it. Since it is someone near to your heart, you definitely know what the person want and desire, so it would not be hard for you to pick a style or design.

READ MORE

Cool Jewelry For Moms On The Net

Tuesdays are usually tiresome days when you’re recuperating from Monday, but not quite to the “hump” day yet. So, wear jewelry according to how you feel. If you feel daring and dashing, try out some bizarre styles. If you’re feeling worn and tired, keep the jewelry simple with natural tones.

On Sundays, you can wear something simple or elegant if you attend church services – whatever best suits the occasion. If you’re attending sports on Sunday, wear simple jewelry that won’t get in the way. If resting around the house – forget about the jewelry!

Surely, she loves a Mommy Tag Necklace. It is a cool and hip mom silver charm necklace (Menwiki.men) way of being proud of motherhood. This necklace has two tags. One tag is called the Bebe Love or Heart Tag. It has a deeply engraved heart in the middle with the words Bebe Love inscribed at the sides. As for the other smaller silver tag, it is for Mom’s daughter. The daughter’s name and birth date will be engraved on the smaller piece. If Mom has more children, add more charms for her other children. This necklace is also loved by the celebrity moms such as Jennifer Garner, Courtney Cox Arquette, Gwyneth Paltrow, Debra Messing, and Kate Hudson.

The growing trend in jewelry is having it personalized such as a Name Necklace. Today, so many Hollywood stars like Jennifer Lopez are showcasing their personalized jewelry; and it has even become fashionable among the public to wear a copy of their signature jewelry. While some prefer to wear fashion jewelry of their favorite actresses and singers, many also proudly wear their own necklace that reads their name on it. Indeed, one of the best gifts to get someone you love is a personalized necklace. Read on to see why getting a nameplate necklace should be one of the first ideas to consider when thinking of a great gift.

Here is a charm necklace with a heart pendant hanging on a rolo chain. Make this necklace more special by having the pendant engraved with your wife’s name or initials. There is also a matching bracelet for this necklace. This suits your wife if you want to make her feel and look younger.

Your Mom will surely love these jewelry pieces for Mother’s Day. The simplicity in the design, the uniqueness, the class and the elegance will make her feel extra special on her day.

But to take advantage of what your necklace can give you, you also have to make sure that you have the right one, relative to your dress, look and personality. Here are some points you might want to remember in your selection.

TIP: Height does play a role in choosing the right necklace length. For an attractive look, short or petite women should avoid long necklaces or earrings that will negatively accentuate their height, making them look more diminutive. Likewise, voluptuous women should stay away from fragile, small pieces, which can disappear on a larger frame.

READ MORE

Club Nature annonce des excursions d’été

Gloucester County Club Nature organise les visites sur le terrain d’été suivants. Le premier voyage est une promenade à Parvin State Park, Route 540 (Almond Road) en Pittsgrove le dimanche, août

Joignez-vous à une promenade de 2 à 3 miles sur certains des sentiers boisés dans les 400 acres boisées du parc qui ont été désignées une zone naturelle. Les sentiers de Parvin sont larges, bien entretenu et facilement accessible à pied. Parvin State Park se trouve à Salem County à la frontière très occidentale des pinèdes. Parvin est le foyer de l’état menacé chouette rayée et le marais Nike Air Zoom 12 Femmes Gris Blanc Rose Pas Cher en voie de disparition. Le parc est un endroit d’observation des oiseaux bien connu, avec 180 espèces d’oiseaux ayant été enregistrées il.

Ce parc est un grand pour les randonnées d’été depuis ses grands arbres offrent beaucoup d’ombre. Joignez-vous à une randonnée à l’autre extrémité de ce parc et de vérifier une nouvelle partie du courant de cette année. Découvrez ce qui est dans, sur, sous et autour Nike Structure De Zoom De L’air 21 Uniesx Gris Noir Boutique la crique que nous marchons dans l’eau. Nous recherchons des poissons, des grenouilles, des tortues, des moules, des empreintes d’animaux, de fleurs, d’oiseaux et plus encore.

Porter des chaussures d’eau appropriées ou de vieilles espadrilles pour marcher dans l’eau, des chaussures qui offrent une certaine protection sont meilleures (Air Jordan 11 Hommes 378037-603 Toro Blanc Rouge Boutique Pas Cher des tongs). La promenade dans le flux 2017 Adidas Nmd Nouveau Est Arrivé Bb2884 R1 Unisexe Noir Gris Blanc Pas Cher 2016 un peu plus longtemps que certains flux passé marche, mais il est un endroit magnifique. Soyez prêt à se mouiller. Vous pouvez apporter un insectifuge.

READ MORE

Jewelry For Mom On Mother’s Day

Everyone needs key rings. Personalized key rings can either be made out of metal, wood, plastic, and sometimes even stuffed toys. These key rings can hold car keys and pocket sized flash lights that come in handy during the night and for emergency reasons.

Jewelry for mothers are real good tangible gift. Aside from adding glamor and sophistication, giving jewelry for mothers is a way of spoiling them actually, which is good. You cannot do this very often so it is better to choose something that will last for quite a long time.

We have arrived at the most interesting topic for ladies. Lucky for them, the bendy necklace can come in a wide collection of colors like copper, gold, silver, black or bronze. In addition to this, there are also various lengths or thicknesses which can generate multiple choices. The necklaces can also be combined in order to get a layered aspect. There are plenty of styles and possibilities that can be tested.

Links of London is one of the favorite brands of decorations. It is delicate, made by fine craftsmanship, and what’s more important, it’s very special. I like Links of London very much like many other people. My special piece is a necklace with a boy’s name and my name engraved together.

In buying this mothers necklace, of course, there are a lot of things you have to think about. First, is it going to be handcrafted, the machine stamped are more consistent and has much of a define edges. So if you want to have your name or your birth date be engraved then it a good idea. But if you want to surprise your mother, then a mother necklace is a best choice. An artist will be the one to hand stamp the mom’s name, child’s name or the birth date into the disk. Handcrafted will give you a real pleasure particularly if personal touch is what you are after.

Name Necklace Aside from the obvious rest that they need, a little form of affection may compensate for the hardship. Hence, it your obligation as her child to make them feel loved and appreciated.

The kind of jewelry piece that you have may reveal the kind of personality that you have. Hence, if you want to show off an elegant look, you should make sure that you pick the kind of jewelry that also looks elegant.

This bracelet is very simple and sophisticated. It has a very thin and shiny latch bracelet that is further enhanced with a round charm at the center. You may have your initials inscribed on the center silver.

READ MORE

Guidelines for B2B Telemarketing Call Center Agents

The business process industry is a thriving front on almost all business sectors. These companies mostly located offshore employ thousands of telemarketers which would be, technically, the company’s product movers. In order to ensure the high quality of product turnover within a period of time, sales quotas are imposed and telemarketing metrics are calibrated for performance evaluation. It is the task of the telemarketer to either make a sale, set up an appointment, Adidas Superstar Unisex Blau Schwarz Weiß Günstig Kaufen schedule a meeting, or coordinate a trade event. How persuasive you are to for a client to commit a sale depends on how you apply the following proven techniques in telemarketing:Tip 1: Never use jargon or technical terms when speaking to callers.This is a common mistake for arguably a lot of telemarketers. For example, “Our 00000 Model is configured to work with Series H and Series X type systems,” This statement doesn’t poke any interest because these are simply product technicalities that wouldn’t be of any interest for someone listening to this stuff over the phone. Stay away from jargon as much as possible. Jargon and technical terms creates the likelihood for miscommunication which we want to avoid in any telemarketing presentation. When a caller doesn’t understand what we’re trying to say, he will get bored or sometimes, be irritated which could lead to a possible hang up. If it is necessary to mention a jargon, however, be able to back up a clarification.Tip 2: Meet rebuttals head on.Get right back on the phone right after a client prospect says “I don’t want it”. A rejection feeling is bad create its negative side at work. You would notice that it sulks right under your skin and you’d no longer feel to make calls the rest of the day. Make a plan for how to handle rejection or rebuttal. Remember, they don’t see you and you have no right to feel defeated. Think of this: perhaps you can look at a picture of something that you are planning to buy in the future. Or a picture of your kid to look at everytime you have a “no sale”. There’s no such thing as a bad call, it’s just the inappropriate technique on how to handle a call. And never use expletives to face a rebuttal.Natural dialogue means being able to communicate in a casual yet professional manner. It is like being able to conversely chat with someone minus the social barrier. There are many telemarketers who are trained to be professionally corporate speakers, making them sound dull over the phone. However, the employ of natural dialogue is now being acknowledged because it is, foremost, the most familiar type of social communication anywhere you go. And a prospect client will most likely buy from you if you if they are comfortable with you on the first place. This is where rapport comes in. It is the precursor to every established business relationship.Tip Nike Zoom Winflo 4 898467-001 Männer Schwarz Österreich: Adidas Superstar Unisex Blau Schwarz Weiß Günstig Kaufen Find the right buyer before any attempt at selling or setting an appointment.Identify the right buyer at the beginning of a call. This makes directional selling efficient. The skillful use of probing at the beginning of the call marks the identifying needs of a client. For example, if you are offering accounting software for small to mid size corporations, probing allows you to size up what package or plan is the right one for them. By locating the “right” buyer, wasted conversation with callers who have little or no interest at all is eliminated. If, however, we have an idea who we are speaking to, we increase our chances for success in closing a sale. The sector responsible for identifying this customer trending is the lead generation department and they just feed to us the client profile. We, as a telemarketer, have to do our assignment too whatsoever. If we do not, we will lose the opportunity where we could have addressed the need.Tip 5: Limit your product description to at least within two sentences.Too many words to vividly describe a product would simply sound like pure salestalk and would just drag the conversation further. What the client is after is usually how a product can address his need. It is only after implying this need that you can proceed to describe important features associated with the product. Too many sales people drone on and on about their products, wrongly imagining that leaving anything out would be a disaster. The truth is that clients must hear your product’s best stuff in as little time as possible if you want them to remain focused. It may sound hard to do, but this will pay dividends in the long run. Practice stating the basics about your product in two sentences, three max. You have more time afterward to elaborate on features that are important to the caller. When you first present your product, present it with brevity and make sure you describe it in the most value rich way. This will keep callers listening, focused, and waiting for more.You have to have a love for selling. Without which, your enterprise is doomed from the start. People in the telemarketing industry love to make money and they’re good at that. Even if you think that you’re just heading off into a reading script, learn to innovate. Remember, callers like to get in on a good thing. And if you have aces up your sleeves, callers would love you for the little surprises you’re pulling in. Like, you know how to put their shoes into your reality.Tip 7: When a caller objects early on a call, start by acknowledging the objection, then express empathy.Once you receive an objection at the beginning of the all and you don’t do anything about it, that particular type of call is a goner already. For example, a good rebuttal for an early objection is “I understand that you may be a little hesitant at the moment.” Then follow it up with, “however, if you can just give me a couple of minutes, I’m pretty sure you’ll be interested in what I have to say because I think I found a better way that can actually help solve your organizations needs.” Acknowledging builds a bridge from the objection to the proper response to that objection. By telling them that you might have the solution to help their needs, you are intriguing them to actually listen to you further.Tip 8: Acknowledge the Problem, Offer A SuggestionDuring an early objection, acknowledge first and then respond appropriately with , “And that’s exactly why I’m here to help you out.” Then match their objection to the answer that you give. For example, a good scripting on this will run as: “That’s exactly why I’m here to help you out! Looking at it, it seems you’ve encountered these difficulties for the past two years. If I may, the root of the problem lies at the inventory level, wherein it has been found that 40% of the merchandise are lost due to _____. Our company offers alternative solutions to arrest these losses and protect your business interests.” This is one of the most successful techniques used in a telemarketing call. You don’t force the solution to them but rather offers a suggestion to attempt at being able to work together with you backing them up instead of simply appearing as a salesman with merchandise to dispose of.Tip 9: Don’t argue with the caller when he or she objects. They just want to raise a pointIt is wise to refocus on an offer’s value rather than reason with wily tactics to steer away a caller’s objections. Probe first then empathize if need be. Remember that buyers are not putting a lot of thought into reflexive objections. When we try to push back a reflexive objection with reason, it certainly is bound to fail. Usually, callers will come up with a lot more objections if we counter them again and again.Tip 10: Close with confidence.Finally, it is important to sound confident over the phone especially when you are already attempting to close the deal. You don’t want the client to have a tinge of doubt do you? Confidence in yourself means confidence in your product as coming from a reliably trustworthy company. Telemarketers often add extra commentary, hesitate or stutter when asked about the company or product. Now, take note that when a caller hears the hesitation just like you are, it is suggestive that there is a hidden reason why this would come as an indefinite time for the moment to postpone the buying decision. When a sales person is confident about his or her product, it raises the bar of trust and dependability of what you are endorsing. To put it simply, your confidence simply vouch and vote for a product or activity to tell them that “hey, try this and I can guarantee to you that it will work just as it has work for me and to many other people.”I was both amused and glad to have read this article. It is not just comprehensive, but also precise in suggesting tips to telemarketing call center agents. Sales reps carry on their shoulders the big responsibility of succeeding both in b2b lead generation and b2b appointment setting. So, I suggest that they read the above quoted article as a guide. The write up has been clear in offering solutions on how to engage a potential client, handle objections and the right attitude.I’m sure that telephone operators of outbound call centers have been practicing some, most or all of the aforementioned tips. They have already merged in their process of obtaining sales leads and business appointments the lessons laid down. If you want to be working with competitive and expert callers, you can do so by partnering with a b2b telemarketing firm.

READ MORE

Jewelry Making Findings Explained

If you are to pick your jewelry, you should check the mom’s name charm necklace. It is one of the pieces of jewelry that easily match any kind of character. Also, with its personalized details, you can be sure that your personality is shown when you use it. You will only have to pick the design of the charm necklace that you will buy.

Diamond heart pendants are also a very popular style amongst women. It has always been said that a diamond is a girl’s best friend. If this really is true no women should live without a diamond heart necklace, or two. These types of necklaces come in all different shapes and sizes but with a little know how; you can find the perfect one.

If you’re like the rest of the working world, then Mondays for you are usually all business. And that means “busy!” For busy, stressful Mondays you’ll want to keep your attire simple and comfortable. Many ladies in the workforce are tempted to wear something very “business-like” on Mondays to make up for a weekend of slouchy clothing. Unfortunately, this makes for a miserable Monday! Wear flexible, simple clothing and simple jewelry such as a pair of short earrings and one simple necklace. You might even wear a couple of small, flat rings, but nothing that stands out – or sticks out!

Admit it; the best word that we would want to hear is our very own name. To any individual given with personalized jewelry would be the best gift that they can receive. Anyone will be please as they receive this gift item.

Name Necklace But to take advantage of what your necklace can give you, you also have to make sure that you have the right one, relative to your dress, look and personality. Here are some points you might want to remember in your selection.

The very noticeable part of this necklace is the size of the heart which is designed with intricate feather shapes in gold. The charm is made of sterling silver which may be personalized by having mom’s name engraved on it. You may ask for additional charms if you need to have other names included in the necklace. You may also add mom’s birthstone according to her birth date. The cable chain that holds the charms together is also made of gold.

Photo frames make good new mum gifts. With different sizes of photo frame available, you’ll create a permanent reminder that the tantrum prone toddler or sullen teenager was once a lovely baby!

If you treasured this article and you simply would like to receive more info with regards to Mynameise nicely visit our web-page.

READ MORE

Express All Your Other Concerns With Beautiful Black Onyx Jewelry

Aside from your choices, you will also need to consider your mom’s age. There are designs that can fit her and make her look elegant. Also, there are some who also prefer a simpler design or those pieces that can match the outfit that your mom normally wears.

Queen Victoria gave the Hawaiian queen Liliuokalani a gold bracelet with her name enameled on it and from then on every goldsmith in Hawaii had to be taught the art of making these pieces.

A Name Necklace is the most common and most successful gift idea for a woman. These delicate and pretty necklaces are adored by all women. You can buy necklaces online as well. This custom-made necklace will give her the most special feeling that you want her to feel.

What is in the top of every brides personal priority list? Many would probably say that it is her wedding dress. And why not? This is the dress that tops all dresses, for it is one she will wear on the day that will mark one of the biggest changes in her life, albeit a change she willingly embraces. But the dress might look bare without the accessories to go with it. This is where the wedding jewelry comes in, and when we get down to particulars, like the neck, the bridal necklace is the one that takes care of that bareness.

The ideas are infinite. The necklace is suitable for an everyday look and with the help of the gold piece that bends, your Greece goddess look is not far from happening. There is also the silver choice that will make you look more like a business person that feels bold and confident.

Pearl chokers are between 14-16 inches long and are, depending on who you talk to, either the most popular or second most popular length. Necklaces of this length should sit just above the collarbone. Again, they will look great with styles that leave this area exposed – however they are very classic and will add a touch of elegance to nearly any outfit.

With more sellers today, you have better chance of getting the kind of jewelry that you really like. There are more personalized necklaces, bracelets and other pieces out in the market. It is natural that you would want to have a piece that looks elegant and beautiful. However, another consideration would be to make sure that the piece is unique so that you can really feel that the jewelry is specially made for you.

Another choice for you is to buy a mothers’ bracelet on Mother’s Day. Mothers’ bracelet is also a perfect jewelry for Mom because she can wear it also everyday. But it is also great to buy her a necklace that she can wear for every occasion she feels like going to.

READ MORE

Celebrity Jewelry Choices

Monogram Necklaces are so stylish and attractive, Mynameise you wont be able to resist getting one for yourself. And there is nothing wrong with that… it is your special day after all! Make a statement with an extra-large monogram necklace, it is sure to make heads spin as you walk down the aisle. You can choose to have your Necklace personalized with the letters of your first name, maiden name and new married surname if you like. Or you can also choose to have only one or two letters on the Necklace. Why not be a proud wife and show off the initials of your new husband?

On Fridays, you’ve let your hair down and want to be free from “dressy” outfits and jewelry. So on Fridays, keep your fashion jewelry simple and don’t be afraid to dress casually if your boss allows it.

Name Necklace I am who I am, this is very true. Each and every one of us has different personality, so when picking for a necklace, personalized necklace would be a great choice. Actually, as you look for trendy jewelry nowadays, you will find personalized necklace as one of those popular pieces of jewelry. Displaying your name on the necklace is something that describes who you really are.

Here is your way out of the bind. If you find yourself in the camp of the visual learners, that is, those who tend to remember the visual form of information, try the following. Take the name and attach a picture to it, or to its parts. Oh, and the more bizarre, the better. For example, immediately visualize five-year-old Tiffany having breakfast at the Tiffany jewelry store in New York City, wearing a million dollar diamond necklace.

Then, because it was rice, I went to a Chinese restaurant and got a take-out container and had them fill it with fortune cookies. I draped the necklace over the cookies and sealed it up.

These necklaces have a delicate chain which leads to the person’s name being in the centre of the chain. You could even get these chains encrusted with gems such as diamonds to give it that extra elegance and sparkle.

With more sellers today, you have better chance of getting the kind of jewelry that you really like. There are more personalized necklaces, bracelets and other pieces out in the market. It is natural that you would want to have a piece that looks elegant and beautiful. However, another consideration would be to make sure that the piece is unique so that you can really feel that the jewelry is specially made for you.

Gather all the necessary materials. Children will enjoy working with colorful beads. Materials to complete this project include beads, clasp, scissors, and fishing line. Other strings could be used in the absence of a fishing line. Choose the kind of beads preferred since beads also come in different styles such as ceramic, plastic, glass, metal, and more.

READ MORE

Shoring up the wonders

Even in the brightest sunshine, Mount Vesuvius casts a threatening shadow over Naples in southern Italy. Residents live in fear of the volcano, whose murderous eruption in AD 79 propelled lava and ash over surrounding towns, including Pompeii and adidas neo Herculaneum, burying them.

For centuries, the ancient towns remained safely sealed from the elements; they were rediscovered only in the eighteenth century. Archaeological excavations since then have revealed much about life in Roman times, but Pompeii in particular dominates the public imagination. The 66 hectare site, two thirds of which has been excavated, receives more than 2 million visitors a year. Many Neapolitans make their living thanks to the tourist industry created by the catastrophe.

But a new shadow has fallen on the sites. The collapse of some structures during the past few years including Pompeii Schola Armaturarum or of the Gladiators in November 2010 has raised questions about whether Italy is taking good enough care of its considerable cultural heritage. Concerns have been inflamed by a well publicized series of calamities, small and large, at several other sites in Italy, including stones falling from the walls of the Colosseum a year ago.

Italy has the largest number of entries of any country on the World Heritage List, which was created on 16 November 1972 under the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Along with Italy place on the list comes moral pressure to safeguard its heritage artefacts, artworks and architectures from the Etruscan and Roman periods, through the Renaissance and up to the twentieth century dictatorship of Mussolini, which put an end to Italian glory. Minor amphitheatres in remote towns like Cassino and specialized scientific collections such as the University of Pavia eccentric hoard of pathological specimens are considered no less important than better known items.

It is often forgotten just how much Italy is doing right where its heritage is concerned. Many important sites and artworks are in fine shape for example, the painstakingly restored Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci in Milan. Between 1977 and 1999, adidas obuv pánska under the guidance of Pinin Brambilla Barcilon, conservators used techniques such as chemical analysis of different layers of the fresco in microscopic core samples and infrared reflectoscopy to see below the surface of the fresco without harming it. Indeed, Italy has several world class conservation and restoration institutes, including the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property in Rome and the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in Florence.

Yet political support for culture in Italy dwindled from the 1980s onwards, and funds continue to shrink alarmingly. Retiring staff working at cultural heritage sites are not replaced. The proportion of the state budget dedicated to culture shrank from 0.39 in 2000 (more than 2 billion, or US billion) to 0.19 in 2011 (less than 1.5 billion).

The consequences are evident at the Vesuvius archaeological sites. Any city will quickly deteriorate if its roofs are not fixed and its drains not cleared. Over the decades, water from below and above has caused salts to leach through walls, destabilizing them, damaging mosaics and destroying frescos.

The problems are as much managerial as financial. Pompeii acquired substantial subsidies through the European Union (EU) Structural Funds in the 1980s and 1990s. But instead of using those to conserve the exposed remains, the superintendency embarked on glamorous new excavation work to impress politicians. This went so badly that, at one point, the EU suspended payment.

In 1997, just 16 out of the Pompeii superintendency 711 staff were archaeologists, architects and art historians; in the era of computers, 34 were typists. Successive governments went on to shamelessly ignore Pompeii autonomy. The 2006 government siphoned off 30 million of Pompeii income for spending elsewhere. In 2008, the government declared a one year state of emergency for the site, later extended by a further year. This system protects heritage from crass development, but can be damagingly slow in operation. Moreover, staff at all sites from archeologists to ticket collectors are government employees with jobs for life. The inflexibilities make long term planning almost impossible.

During the past decade or so, successive governments have experimented with new approaches to funding conservation, with some clear successes. The Egyptian Museum in Turin has, since 2005, been managed by a private foundation. This has renovated and modernized the museum, to international acclaim. And shoe magnate Diego Della Valle is paying 25 million for urgently needed conservation work on Rome Colosseum that is being directed by the ministry. In return, he gets exclusive rights to use the image of the edifice to promote his products for 15 years. Alarmed academics have tried to equate such activities with privatization. But the heritage itself remains firmly in the possession of the state, which retains full power to control conservation or restoration projects.

Now the Pompeii superintendency has a further 105 million of EU structural funds to spend on securing its site, efficiently and effectively, under stern oversight and within just three years. This will be a challenge, although the project acquired a further 20 or so architects and archaeologists this year.

Herculaneum, fortunately, won the support of philanthropist David W. Packard, son of the co founder of the Hewlett Packard information technology company. His Packard Humanities Institute in Los Altos, California, has been running the Herculaneum Conservation Project in partnership with the superintendency and the British School at Rome for the past 11 years. This international, interdisciplinary team of archaeologists, architects and conservationists do unglamorous practical conservation work. This could be mending the ancient drainage networks, repairing roof coverings or driving out the pigeons whose voluminous, acidic excreta destroy frescos. The work is mostly low tech for example, adidas obuv pánska the best solution they found for the pigeons is to encourage falconers to visit the site regularly.

The Herculaneum project has inspired at least one other consortium of foreign scientists to bid to help to conserve and restore some frescoed houses in Pompeii, working in partnership with the Italians.

Such respectful international support for Italy cultural heritage is fundamental. But the country will have to help itself by relaxing outdated labour laws and modernizing management of its cultural heritage systematically. Italy can do much about Vesuvius shadow. It can do a lot about the political shadows it casts on itself.

READ MORE

Recent Comments

    Categories